Study: Efficacy and Safety Evaluation of Chlorine Dioxide Solution

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, March 2017


In this study, a chlorine dioxide solution (UC-1) composed of chlorine dioxide was produced using an electrolytic method and subsequently purified using a membrane. UC-1 was determined to contain 2000 ppm of gaseous chlorine dioxide in water. The efficacy and safety of UC-1 were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity was more than 98.2% reduction when UC-1 concentrations were 5 and 20 ppm for bacteria and fungi, respectively. The half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of H1N1, influenza virus B/TW/71718/04, and EV71 were 84.65 ± 0.64, 95.91 ± 11.61, and 46.39 ± 1.97 ppm, respectively. A 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test revealed that the cell viability of mouse lung fibroblast L929 cells was 93.7% at a 200 ppm UC-1 concentration that is over that anticipated in routine use. Moreover, 50 ppm UC-1 showed no significant symptoms in a rabbit ocular irritation test. In an inhalation toxicity test, treatment with 20 ppm UC-1 for 24 h showed no abnormality and no mortality in clinical symptoms and normal functioning of the lung and other organs. A ClO2 concentration of up to 40 ppm in drinking water did not show any toxicity in a subchronic oral toxicity test. Herein, UC-1 showed favorable disinfection activity and a higher safety profile tendency than in previous reports.


UC-1 (Chlorine Dioxide Solugion) was produced through a green process with clean starting materials and procedures. UC-1 solution demonstrated satisfactory antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activity. Low toxicity was demonstrated through an in vitro cytoxicity test (high IC50 765 ± 18 ppm), 50 ppm ClO2 did not cause eye irradiation in an ocular irritation test, mice did not exhibit abnormality and mortality in a 20 ppm ClO2 inhalation toxicity test, and concentrations of UC-1 up to 40 ppm were nontoxic to mice for 90 days in subchronic oral toxicity test. Therefore, a higher safety profile for UC-1 than those yielded in previous studies was demonstrated.

Keywords: chlorine dioxide (PubChem CID: 24870); antimicrobial efficacy; antiviral assay; inhalation toxicity; subchronic oral toxicity

Link to study: 

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